Difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine

Precision medicine vs. personalized medicine

There is still some confusion surrounding the difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine. Some argue for a strict distinction between the two. For them, using the term “precision medicine” instead of “personalized medicine” offers a more accurate representation of practices involving the customisation of healthcare services. Others have used the two interchangeably however. The […]

Linking infections with cognitive impairment, mental illnesses

The high susceptibility to infectious diseases can have a far-reaching and unintended consequence. A growing body of research has tried to link infections with poor IQ and cognitive impairment, as well as with the development of several mental illnesses. In other words, the distress of an individual from an infection does not end upon treatment and recovery. […]

Evolution and genetics, The science of homosexuality

Evolution and genetics: The science of homosexuality?

From an evolutionary perspective, homosexuality is a trait that should not persist, especially considering the Darwinian model of natural selection. This theory suggests that factors that reduce fitness and fecundity or fruitfulness and fertility should progressively disappear over time following the course of evolution and natural selection. However, there are several studies that might explain […]

Basics of physical fitness, Definition and discussion

Basics of physical fitness: Definition and discussion

The popularity of yoga pants and the rise of spornosexuals are clear indicators that a considerable percentage of the population have become obsessed with getting fit. It is also worth mentioning that the recent years have witnessed the emergence of several trademarked workout regimens and disciplines—from specialised routines such as TRX and HIIT as well […]

Fitness basics, Five categories of physical training

Fitness basics: Five categories of physical training

Physical training in the context of physical fitness and physical activity refers to a method of acquiring or achieving a specific result. Simply put, physical training is intended to achieve general fitness. Other forms of training are aimed at achieving an ideal physical appearance to include weight loss or weight gain. There are also types or categories […]

Host-parasite coevolution theory of sexual reproduction

Host-parasite coevolution theory of sexual reproduction

The host-parasite coevolution theory suggests that sex and sexual reproduction have evolved in part as defence against parasites. It also suggests that the continued maintenance of sex and sexual reproduction is an adaptive response needed to develop resistance against parasites. It is important to note that the host-parasite coevolution theory is a derivative of the […]

Maple syrup prevents ALS development in worms

Maple syrup prevents ALS development in worms

The Canadian province of Quebec is the largest producer and exporter of maple syrup in the world. More than two years ago, two students from Montreal toyed with the idea of exploring the health benefits of this popular condiment as part of their after-school research project. In search for a mentor, they approached Alex Parker, […]

Explainer: Basics of CRISPR genome editing

In December 2014, the MIT Technology Review described CRISPR as “the biggest biotech discovery of the century.” This was not an over stretch. CRISPR genome editing or CRISPR/Cas system genome editing is a “search and replace” function for DNA. It could easily disable genes or change their functions by deleting or replacing DNA letters or […]

The science of sugar addiction

The science of sugar addiction?

There are some reservations surrounding sugar addiction. Some wonder if habitual overconsumption of sugar-rich food is an actual behavioural addiction similar to compulsive gambling or sexual perversion. Furthermore, unlike substance addiction, it is impossible to completely gear away from sugar because it is an essential source of energy. However, it is important to take note of […]

The homosexual brain, Structural and functional difference

The homosexual brain: Structural and functional difference

To a certain extent, homosexuals are biologically different from heterosexuals as evident from the structural or anatomical and functional difference between their brains. This fact further establishes the biological underpinning of sexual orientation and homosexuality. Acclaimed Dutch neurologist Dick F. Swaab mentioned in his review of literatures that sexual differentiation of the human brain occurs […]

Multicellularity, Definition and discussions

Multicellularity: Definition and discussions

Single-celled organisms dominated life on Earth for billions of years. The evolution to multicellular life however changed the entire landscape because it resulted in the emergence of organisms characterised by biological complexities and enormous physical appearance relative to their unicellular counterparts. Furthermore, the appearance of multicellular organisms resulted in the emergence of a new biological environment […]

Brown fat and weight loss, A solution to obesity

Brown fat and weight loss: A solution to obesity?

Brown adipose tissue or brown fat is one of the two types of fat or adipose tissue abundant in hibernating animals and newborn humans. Compared to white adipose tissue or white fat, which contains a single lipid droplet, brown fat contains numerous smaller lipid droplets and a higher number of iron-containing mitochondria. It is worth […]

Functional heart muscle regenerated in decellularised human hearts

Functional heart muscle regenerated in decellularised human hearts

Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital successfully regenerated functional heart muscles from decellularised human hearts. This accomplishment specifically involved bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes. Current procedures involving heart transplantation remain problematic. The researchers noted that organ shortage in the United States […]

Multicellularity and cancer, Discussions

Multicellularity and cancer: Discussions

The definition of multicellularity centres on having cells with the capacity to cooperate and organise to form functional tissues. Cancer is the opposite. During carcinogenesis, cancerous cell behaves differently from normal cells by dividing uncontrollably to form lumps of tumour that endangers the integrity of a tissue or organ within a multicellular organism. Several studies […]

Evolution to multicellular animal life due to single mutation

Evolution to multicellular animal life due to single mutation

The evolution to multicellular animal life was a product of a biological phenomenon that happened 600 million years ago. A study published in the open-access journal eLife provided a detailed scenario on how a single-cell eukaryotic organism eventually evolved into a multicellular organism. Life as we know it might be different if not for one mutation […]

Aging as a disease and the search for possible cure

Aging as a disease and the search for possible cure

It would be quite tough for some to consider aging as a disease. Conventional understanding tells us that aging is a relentless and unstoppable natural biological process. However, because of a myriad of health conditions associated with growing old—including diabetes, cardiovascular failures, cancer, and cognitive impairment—it is also hard not to consider this inevitable process as […]

The human endogenous retroviruses: An introductory discussion

Imprinted deeply in the human genome are traces of ancient retroviruses that infected humankind or more appropriately, pre-human species about 60 million years ago. Through the natural process of evolution and other biological mechanisms, these traces have found their way in human DNA and become human endogenous retroviruses.   EDITOR’S NOTE: Our website and all […]

School gardening can help in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among children

School gardening: Promoting vegetable consumption

Children often disregard vegetables or salads from food selections available at school canteens. Nonetheless, several studies have revealed that school gardening and related nutrition intervention programs can promote fruit and vegetable consumption. In other words, children are more likely to eat fruits and vegetables if they grow them themselves or if they have an established […]

Power naps can significantly improve memory performance according to neuropsychologists

Power naps can improve memory performance

A power nap is a very short sleep that terminates before an individual falls deeper into the slow-wave sleep phase of the sleep cycle. People have been taking power naps to jumpstart their day or to supplement normal sleep, especially when they have accumulated sleep debts. Neuropsychologists from Saarland University in Germany have further uncovered […]

Health benefits of exercise and physical activity

Health benefits of exercise and physical activity

Individuals should understand that physical fitness is an important determinant of health and this is only attainable through regular physical activity. It is also worth mentioning that a large body of research have concluded that sedentary behaviour is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the world. The diseases that come from having […]